We reviewed all European countries where at least one kraft-technology based wood refinery operates and ascertained whether any had been built close to university towns. They had in all these countries. In some countries, the mills are in the very vicinity of historic scientific and culture centres.
In 1288, the King of Portugal, Denis I, established the first university in Portugal, considered the predecessor of the University of Lisbon. From 1911, the University of Lisbon has operated continuously and currently has 45 000 students. Close to three million people live in the Lisbon region and there are several UNESCO world cultural heritage sites in the city. 30 kilometres from the city centre of Lisbon is Navigator group`s Setubal pulp mill.
The University of Avignon, established in 1309, is now under the University of Aix-Marseille, with a student body of 7000. Next to the renowned city the size of Tartu lies the largest wine region in France called Châteauneuf-du-Pape named after the Bishop of Rome, who lived in Avignon in the 14th century. Avignon with its UNESCO world heritage listed Old Town was the Culture Capital of Europe in the year 2000. As the crow flies, Fibre Excellence pulp mill is 22 kilometres from the city centre.
Over 30 000 students study at the University of Zaragoza established in 1542. 660 000 people live in the city and the city centre, from the era of the Kingdom of Aragon, belongs to the UNESCO world heritage list. As the crow flies, Torraspapel pulp mill is 6 kilometres from Zaragoza city centre.
Over 30 000 students study at the University of Graz established in 1585. The city of Graz has a population of 325 000. Graz was the Culture Capital of Europe in 2003 and the Old Town belongs to UNESCO world heritage list. The Sappi Gratkorn pulp mill is 11 kilometres from the city as the crow flies, the Austrian Southern Styria wine region is within a 30-kilometre radius.
Over 15 000 students study at Oulo University established in 1958. Currently 200 000 people live in Oulu. Oulu centre is in neoclassic style similar to several historical buildings in Tartu like Tartu University`s Vanemuise St study building or Estonian National Museum`s former main building. Stora Enso`s pulp mill is located 2 kilometres from Oulu city centre.
Over 10 000 students study at ULM University established in 1967. 120 000 people live in the city of Ulm on the bank of the Danube. This is where A. Einstein was born. The world`s tallest church tower is in Ulm. Sappi Ehingen integrated mill is 26 kilometres from the city centre as the crow flies. At the same distance from the mill, you`ll find Germany`s Württemberg wine region.
16 000 students study at Karlstad University established in 1999. Karlstad was settled already during the Age of the Vikings during the previous millennium. Karlstad received city rights in 1584 and currently, 61 000 people live there. Billerudkorsnäse Grüvon pulp mill is 23 kilometres from the city centre of Karlstad as the crow flies.
Lomza University was established in 2004. Lomza received city rights in 1416 and currently, 63 000 people live there. Stora Enso`s Ostroleka mill is 35 kilometres from the city centre of Lomza as the crow flies.